Who Have a Higher Risk of Falling Into Catastrophic Health Expenditures?

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Amalia Noviani


Catastrophic health expenditure is one of the challenges Indonesia faces in achieving Universal Health Coverage. Aside from being a financial disaster, the incident caused by out-of-pocket health expenditure exceeding a fixed limit can drive people into poverty. Unfortunately, the availability of the data causes the limitation of the study in Indonesia. This study aims to analyze the association between catastrophic health expenditure and several social-economic factors by using the latest data of out-of-pocket expenditure collected at the individual level from the 2019 Susenas Module of Health and Housing. Using the Chi-square test, this study confirms a significant association between catastrophic health expenditures and the following social-economic factors: outpatient and inpatient service use, health insurance ownership, age, sex, marital status, educational level, work status, welfare status, type of area, and geographic location. From the logistic regression, the probability of the population to experience catastrophic health expenditure is higher for people in the following categories: use inpatient or outpatient services, do not have health insurance, are elderly, ever-married, not working, not poor, and live in the rural areas or Java island. Disaggregation by outpatient and inpatient service use shows the large gap in the probability of falling into catastrophic health expenditures. The probability for people who used inpatient service is more than four times people who never used the service. Meanwhile, for outpatient service, the probability is almost three times. Therefore, people can strengthen preventive care, especially those with low or no cost, to avoid falling into catastrophic health expenditure.


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Noviani A. Who Have a Higher Risk of Falling Into Catastrophic Health Expenditures?. JIKM [Internet]. 2021 Nov. 30 [cited 2022 May 27];12(3):217-28. Available from: https://ejournal.fkm.unsri.ac.id/index.php/jikm/article/view/818